April 15, 2024

Precision in Motion: Understanding the Essential Role of Valves in Fluid Power Applications

A valve is a component that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are present in almost every industry like power plants, oil and gas, chemical processing, water supply systems, sewage systems etc. They play a vital role in controlling and managing the flow of fluids which are essential for smooth functioning of these industries. In this article, we will discuss the working of different types of valves, their key applications and significance in modern infrastructure and industrial processes.

Types of Valves

There are various types of valves used depending on the type of fluid handled and application. Some of the commonly used valve types are:

Gate Valves

Gate valves are linear motion valves used to start and stop fluid flow. They have a wedge-shaped disc (gate) that moves perpendicular to the pipeline to either fully open or close the flow path. They are robust, inexpensive and easy to operate. Gate valves find applications in isolation, throttling and on-off service in pipelines.

Ball Valves

Ball valves have a hollow, spherical disc with a port or hole through the middle. The disc portion rotates within the valve body to either align or misalign the port with the passageways. They allow quick on-off regulation of flow. Ball valves are common in plumbing, compressed air lines, chemical plants etc.

Butterfly Valves

Butterfly valves consist of a disc, with its pivoted edge perpendicular to the direction of fluid flow. As the disc rotates, it opens or closes the passageway. They are compact and cheap with low maintenance. Butterfly valves are widely used to regulate flow in large pipes in areas like power generation, mining etc.

Check Valves

Check valves, also known as non-return valves, allow flow in only one direction by using a swinging, tilting or popup disc. They prevent backflow in pipes and are common in pumps, pressure vessels etc. Swing check valves and lift check valves are some commonly used check valve designs.

Applications of Valves in Key Industries

Valves play an important role across various core industries that drive modern infrastructure and economy. Here are some major applications:

Power Generation

In thermal and nuclear power plants, valves control the flow of water, steam and fuel through complex systems. Gate valves are common in steam lines to isolate turbines and equipment during maintenance. Butterfly valves regulate flow rate in large pipes carrying steam or water. Check valves prevent backflow in critical systems.

Oil & Gas Industry

Valves form a crucial component in oil and gas extraction, processing, transportation and distribution processes. Gate valves isolate sections during pipeline maintenance. Ball valves are used for on-off control in manifolds. Butterfly valves handle large flows in transmission lines. Specialized valves like plug valves handle severe service conditions with slurries.

Chemical Processing

Continuous flow processes and high pressures in chemical plants demand robust and reliable valves. Gate, globe, ball and butterfly valves regulate flow and pressure. Diaphragm valves handle difficult services with viscous or crystallizing fluids. Specialty valves meet application needs in corrosive environments.

Water Supply Networks

Valves are essential for flow regulation, isolation, drainage and prevention of reverse flow or back siphonage in water supply pipelines. Gate valves are common for pipeline isolation. Check valves maintain flow direction in critical nodes. Butterfly valves are suitable for large diameter transmission mains.

Sewage Systems

Valves are vital for managing complex flows involving solids through sewer networks to treatment plants. Slurry valves handle difficult slurries. Plug valves are used for isolation and drainage. Butterfly valves regulate flows and control heads in large force mains.

Significance of Valves

With growing industrialization and infrastructure development worldwide, the demand for valves has increased tremendously over the years. They provide critical flow control capability across all vital industries. Valves help maximize efficiency of processes, ensure safety, enable maintenance activities and optimize asset utilization through precise regulation of fluid flows. Their reliable and smooth operation is essential for the functioning of modern economy and society. Innovation in valve designs also continuously enhances performance, safety and cost effectiveness. Valves undoubtedly play a foundational role in shaping modern infrastructure.

1.      Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2.      We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it